Tag Archives: readings/research

Wounded Knee

“Wounded Knee: Hamlet and creek in southwestern South Dakota, the site of two conflicts between the Sioux Indians and the U.S. government. In 1890 the Sioux had been inspired by the Ghost Dance movement to take up arms and reclaim their heritage, but federal military intervention quelled their rebellion. On December 29 a young brave, while surrendering, became involved in a scuffle and a trooper was killed. Soldiers fired at the Indians, killing more than 200 men, women, and children. Thirty soldiers also died. The so-called Battle of Wounded Knee is regarded as the final episode in the conquest of the North American Indian. In 1973 some 200 members of the American Indian Movement took the reservation hamlet by force, declared it an independent nation, and vowed to stay until the government agreed to address Indian grievances; a siege by federal marshals ended when the Indians surrendered in exchange for a promise of negotiations.”

Excerpted from: Stevens, Mark A., Ed. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2000.

Cultural Literacy: Chief Joseph

Here is a Cultural Literacy worksheet on Chief Joseph. This is a half-page worksheet with a reading of two compound sentences and three comprehension questions. And yes, the reading on this document does include Joseph’s famous quote about fighting no more….

If you find typos in this document, I would appreciate a notification. And, as always, if you find this material useful in your practice, I would be grateful to hear what you think of it. I seek your peer review.

The Weekly Text, 18 November 2022, National Native American Heritage Month Week III: A Reading and Comprehension Worksheet on the Pequot War

In the ongoing observation of National Native American Heritage Month 2022 at Mark’s Text Terminal, this week’s Text is this reading on the Pequot War with its accompanying vocabulary-building and comprehension worksheet.

Between the impending holiday, parent-teacher conferences (tonight and tomorrow), and the generally hectic character of life at the moment, I have little editorially to say about these documents. It’s a surprisingly thorough account of this conflict, which in many respects marks the beginning of the genocide of First Nation inhabitants of this continent. The reading doesn’t call it that, but it also does not scruple to tell the full story here–the theft of land from indigenous peoples.

If you find typos in these documents, I would appreciate a notification. And, as always, if you find this material useful in your practice, I would be grateful to hear what you think of it. I seek your peer review.

Mesoamerican Architecture

“Mesoamerican architecture: Building traditions of the indigenous cultures in parts of Mexico and Central American before the 16th-century Spanish conquest. The idea of constructing temple-pyramids appears to have taken hold early. La Venta, the center of Olmec culture c.800-400 BC, contains one of the earliest pyramidal structure, a mound of earth and clay 100 feet (30 meters) high. Mesoamerican pyramids were generally earth mounds faced with stone. Typically of stepped form, they were topped by a platform or temple which only privileged community members were allowed to approach. The best-known include the Pyramid of the Sun (rivaling the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza) and Pyramid of the Moon at Teotihuacan, the Castillo at Chichen Itza, and largest of all, the 177-foot (54 meters) Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl at Cholula. The Classic period (AD 100-900) saw the flourishing of Mayan architecture, in which the corbeled vault made its first appearance in the Americas. Ceremonial centers in the Mayan Lowlands proliferated, as did inscribed and dated stelae and monuments. Tikal, Uaxactun, Copan, Palenque, and Uxmal all attained their glory in these centuries. A common feature at these sites is a tlachtli, or ball court. Their raised platforms were often the architectural center of ancient cities. See also Monte Alban.”

Excerpted from: Stevens, Mark A., Ed. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2000.

Wovoka

“Wovoka: (1858-1932) Paiute religious leader. In 1899 Wovoka announced that during a trance God had told him that his people’s ancestors would rise from the dead, buffalo would return to the plains, and the white man would vanish if the people would perform a ritual dance, the Ghost Dance. The cult quickly spread to other tribes, notably the militant Sioux, and Wovoka was worshiped as a new messiah. After the Wounded Knee massacre, Wovoka’s following dissipated and the movement died out.”

Excerpted from: Stevens, Mark A., Ed. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2000.

American Indian Movement

“American Indian Movement (AIM): Civil rights organization founded in 1968, originally to help urban American Indians displaced by government programs. It later broadened its efforts to include demands for economic independence, autonomy over tribal areas, restoration of illegally seized lands, and protection of Indian legal rights and traditional culture. Some of its protest activities were highly publicized (see Wounded Knee). Internal strife and the imprisonment of some leaders led to the disbanding of its national leadership in 1978, though local groups have continued to function.”

Excerpted from: Stevens, Mark A., Ed. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2000.

The Weekly Text, 11 November 2022, National Native American Heritage Month Week II: A Reading and Comprehension Worksheet on the Homestead Act

This week’s Text, in this blog’s ongoing observance of National Native American Heritage Month 2022, is a reading on the Homestead Act in the United States along with its attendant vocabulary-building and comprehension worksheet. The effect of opening the western frontier to settlement on First Nations requires, I must assume, no explanation.

Have you by any chance seen Reservation Dogs? This superb and highly praised show needs no endorsement from this blog–so you should just go watch it. I’m just saying. If you don’t believe me (as Fred Holbrook used to say to me–and of me, alas–“Get it from the horse’s mouth rather than the other end”), listen to Patrick, of Patrick Is a Navajo, and his friends pay affectionate tribute to the program. Again, I’m just saying.

If you find typos in these documents, I would appreciate a notification. And, as always, if you find this material useful in your practice, I would be grateful to hear what you think of it. I seek your peer review.

Mesoamerican Civilization

“Mesoamerican civilization: Complex of aboriginal cultures that developed in parts of Mexico and Central America before the Spanish before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. This civilization and the Andean civilization in South American constitute a New World counterpart to those of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China. Humans have been present in Mesoamerica from as early as 21,000 BC; a shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture, which began c.7000 BC as the climate warmed with the end of the Ice Age, was completed by c.1500 BC, The earliest great Mesoamerican civilization, the Olmec, dates from c.1150 BC. The Middle Formative period (900-300 BC) saw increased cultural regionalism and the rise of the Zapotec people. Civilizations of the Late Formative and Classical periods (lasting until c.AD 900) include the Maya and the civilization centered at Teotihuacan; later societies include the Toltecs and the Aztecs. See also Chichen Itza, Mixtec, Monte Alban, Nahua, Nahuatl language, Tenochtitlan, Tikal.”

Excerpted from: Stevens, Mark A., Ed. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2000.

Cultural Literacy: Black Hills

Here is a Cultural Literacy worksheet on the Black Hills. This is a half-page worksheet with a reading of four sentences, a four-sentence reading (three of which are technically fragments) and three comprehension questions. In other words, a rudimentary introduction to a place of complex history.

If you find typos in this document, I would appreciate a notification. And, as always, if you find this material useful in your practice, I would be grateful to hear what you think of it. I seek your peer review.

Red Cloud

“Red Cloud originally Mahpiua Luta: (1822-1909) American Indian leader. Born in present-day Nebraska, Red Cloud, as principal chief of the Oglala Teton Lakota (Sioux), led the opposition of both Sioux and Cheyenne to the U.S. government’s development of the Bozeman Trail to goldfields in Montana Territory (1865-67), Relentlessly attacking workers along the route from Fort Laramie (in modern Wyoming) to Montana, he refused offers to negotiate until the U.S. agreed to halt the project, whereupon he laid down his arms and allowed himself to be settled on the Red Cloud Agency in Nebraska.”

Excerpted from: Stevens, Mark A., Ed. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, 2000.