Tag Archives: term of art

Term of Art: Pacing Chart

“pacing chart: A graphic representation of time on task that describes what students and teachers will be doing during a course of study. The pacing chart is a customized guide that some teachers use to plan instruction in each subject and to ensure that they teach the essential skills and knowledge of each topic within a specified period of time while meeting the requirements of state standards.”

Excerpted from: Ravitch, Diane. EdSpeak: A Glossary of Education Terms, Phrases, Buzzwords, and Jargon. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2007.

Chronicle

“Chronicle (noun): A chronological record of events or facts, especially a historical narrative or register without interpretation or comment; account; story. Noun: chronicler; verb: chronicle.

‘The Franks, as a family, came to an end, and, fittingly enough, thought the diarist, so did her chronicle of their effort to go sensibly on as themselves, in spite of everything.’ Philip Roth, The Ghost Writer.”

Excerpted from: Grambs, David. The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers. New York: Random House, 1990.

Term of Art: Word Salad

“Word Salad: One of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia is a disturbance in the use of language. Rather than select words which make communication possible, schizophrenics may combine words in idiosyncratic ways, or use associations that are out of context. This tendency may generate a minor language disturbance; or, in extreme cases, a word salad in which the combination of words is unintelligible to the listener and so makes communication impossible.”

Excerpted from: Marshall, Gordon, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Term of Art: Atypical Learner

“atypical learner: A general term for a child who is different from the typical student in physical, intellectual, social, or emotional development, and who differs in mental characteristics, sensory abilities, communication abilities, or social behavior to the extent that special education services are required for that child to develop.”

Excerpted from: Turkington, Carol, and Joseph R. Harris, PhD. The Encyclopedia of Learning Disabilities. New York: Facts on File, 2006.

Term of Art: Case

“case: Inflectional category, basically of nouns, which typically marks their syntactic function in relation to other parts of a sentence. E.g, in Latin vidi puellam ‘I saw a girl,’ puellam ‘(a) girl’ has the ending of the accusative case (puella-m), which marks it as the object of the verb (vidi ‘I-saw’).

Thence of various more abstract constructs. Thus the function of Mary in I saw Mary is like that of puellam in the example from Latin. Therefore, it too is traditionally ‘accusative,’ in opposition to the same word as a ‘nominative,’ in Mary saw me. Hence abstract cases, posited in principle in all languages, regardless of whether they are realized, as in languages such as Latin, by inflections.”

Excerpted from: Matthews, P.H., ed. The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Term of Art: Heuristic Device

“Heuristic Device: Any procedure which involves the use of an artificial construct to assist in the exploration of social phenomena. It usually involves assumptions derived from extant empirical research. For example, ideal types have been used as a way of setting out the defining characteristics of a social phenomenon, so that its salient features might be states as clearly and explicitly as possible. A heuristic device is, then, a form of preliminary analysis. Such devices have proved especially useful in studies of social change, by defining bench-marks, around which variation and differences can then be situated. In this context, a heuristic device is usually employed for analytical clarity, although it can also have explanatory value as a model.”

Excerpted from: Marshall, Gordon, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Term of Art: Reciprocal Learning

“Reciprocal learning: A pedagogical strategy in which students help one another to master skills or concepts presented by the teacher. Generally, students work in pairs or take turns acting as coach.”

Excerpted from: Ravitch, Diane. EdSpeak: A Glossary of Education Terms, Phrases, Buzzwords, and Jargon. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2007.