“To accurately teach reading via a systematic synthetic phonics approach, and be able to discuss this teaching with colleagues, teachers need to be aware of a whole range of terms. For instance, they need to know that a ‘digraph‘ is a grapheme made up of two letters. They need to know that a diphthong is a sound made-up sound of two vowel sounds, as well as how to recognise a dipthong in speech. They need to know about the ‘schwa‘ vowel sound because this is linked to problems children have with spellings. They need to know what a ‘morpheme‘ is–the smallest unit of meaning–and how this differs from a ‘grapheme.’ They need etymological knowledge such as the origin language of a word; is it Anglo-Saxon, French, or perhaps Latin?”
Ashman, Greg. The Truth about Teaching: An Evidence-Informed Guide for New Teachers. Los Angeles: Sage, 2018.