“Salon Des Refuses: The exhibition promoted by Napoleon III in 1863 to show works rejected by the Paris Salon. Because it undermined the prestige of the academic art sanctioned at the official salon, it is often cited as signaling the birth of the avant-garde and modern art. It showed works by Edouard Manet, Eugene Boudin, Ignace Henri Fantin-Latour, Camille Pissarro, James McNeill Whistler, and others.”
Excerpted from: Diamond, David G. The Bulfinch Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms. Boston: Little Brown, 1992.